# The parmed.amber package¶

The amber package contains classes that can parse most of the file formats used by the Amber molecular dynamics package. In particular are Amber parameter and topology files as well as the various formats of coordinate and trajectory files that Amber supports (and creates).

It is out of the scope of this site to discuss the details of the file formats themselves, and you are instead forwarded to the official Amber website and file format specifications.

## The parameter-topology (prmtop) file¶

The primary file in Amber defining the system topology and the parameters defining the force field for that system is called the prmtop file, whose format is detailed on http://ambermd.org/formats.html. There are several variants of this extensible file format, and these parsers rigorously implement the format specification.

 AmberFormat([fname]) A class that can parse and print files stored in the Amber topology or MDL format. AmberParm([prm_name, xyz, box, rst7_name]) Amber Topology (parm7 format) class. ChamberParm([prm_name, xyz, box, rst7_name]) Chamber Topology (parm7 format) class. AmoebaParm([prm_name, xyz, box, rst7_name]) Tinker Topology (parm7 format) class defining the AMOEBA force field. LoadParm(parmname[, xyz, box]) Loads a topology file using the correct class. AmberMask(parm, mask) What is hopefully a fully-fledged Amber mask parser implemented in Python.

### The AmberFormat class¶

This class simply parses the raw data from a file with the format of an Amber prmtop file and makes the data available in a dict whose keys are the FLAG_NAME in the %FLAG <FLAG_NAME> lines. Some files—like the MDL files used in 3D-RISM calculations—use this format to store raw, structured data, and this class is appropriate for use with those files.

In most cases, however, this simply serves as a base class, along with Structure, for the prmtop parsers.

An example using this class on one of the test files in the ParmEd repostory is shown below:

>>> amb = AmberFormat('cSPCE.mdl')
>>> amb.parm_data['ATMTYP']
[1, 2]
>>> amb.parm_data['COORD']
[0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, -0.333314, 0.942816, 0.0]


If you want to, you can make modifications to the data and then write a new file:

>>> amb.parm_data['COORD'][0] = 10
>>> amb.write_parm('new.mdl')
>>> # Let's check that our new file has the changed COORD
>>> new_amb = AmberFormat('new.mdl')
>>> new_amb.parm_data['COORD']
[10.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0, -0.333314, 0.942816, 0.0]


### The AmberParm, ChamberParm, and AmoebaParm classes¶

These classes are subclasses of both Structure and AmberFormat. (The special classes ChamberParm and AmoebaParm, implementing the CHARMM and Amoeba force fields, respectively, both inherit from AmberParm.) You need to make sure that you use the correct class for the variant of prmtop file you are using. If you are unsure, the LoadParm() function will automatically determine the correct class and return an instance of it (see below).

The AmberParm class parses a prmtop object and stores both the raw data (see the AmberFormat description, above), as well as the standard topological data structures used in the Structure class. Different subclasses of AmberParm will populate different term and parameter lists depending on the terms present in the force field.

The example of an Amber topology file shown here is trx.prmtop, taken from the ParmEd unit test directory available here:

>>> parm = AmberParm('trx.prmtop')
>>> parm.atoms[0].name
'N'
>>> parm.residues[0].name
'SER'
>>> parm.atoms[0].residue is parm.residues[0]
True
>>> len(parm.residues[0])
13
>>> parm.atoms[12].residue.name
'SER'
>>> parm.atoms[13].residue.name # this should be a new residue!
'ASP'
>>> parm.bonds[0].atom1
<Atom C [11]; In SER 0>
>>> parm.bonds[0].atom2
<Atom O [12]; In SER 0>
>>> parm.bonds[0].type.k # Check out our parameter types
570.0
>>> parm.bonds[0].type.req
1.229


### WARNING¶

Since the raw data and topological features are inextricably linked, there are risks associated with modifying the raw data in AmberParm.parm_data and the parameters and properties of the topological data structures in the lists inherited from Structure.

The required overhead to keep AmberParm.parm_data and the topology structures synchronized at all times introduces too great a cost, so keeping them synchronized largely falls on the programmer, although there is functionality introduced to help:

• Changes to the size or contents of any of the lists in the structure will trigger AmberParm.remake_parm() to be called inside AmberParm.write_parm() to make sure that new topology files are written with the updated parameter definitions.

• There are a handful of synchronization routines designed to copy information from the parameter and topology arrays into AmberParm.parm_data and vice-versa. These are summarized in the table below. These are not called automatically (with the exception of AmberParm.remake_parm() prior to writing a new prmtop file) for performance reasons.

• To modify an AmberParm instance safely, follow these guidelines:

• Modify the attributes on the parameter and topology objects, and call AmberParm.remake_parm if you ever need to access the contents of AmberParm.parm_data (but try to avoid using the raw data if possible)
• Use an available class from parmed.tools from the ParmEd API when available, as those classes ensure that the raw data and topology objects are always synchronized when the action completes.
• Feel free to use the Action classes as examples for working with an AmberParm.
Method name Synchronization functionality
AmberParm.load_atom_info() Loads the atom properties from parm_data to the atoms array
AmberParm.load_structure() Loads all parameter/topology data structures from the information in parm_data
AmberParm.remake_parm() Flushes all changes to the parameter/topology data structures to the raw parm_data dict

### An Example¶

An example of the warnings described here is illustrated below, showing how the raw data and parameter/topology data structures can become out-of-sync and lead to potential errors (like above, we use trx.prmtop from the ParmEd test suite, available here:

>>> parm = AmberParm('trx.prmtop')
>>> parm.ptr('NATOM')
1654
>>> len(parm.atoms)
1654
>>> parm.atoms[0].name
'N'
>>> parm.parm_data['ATOM_NAME'][0]
'N'


Notice how the number of atoms according to the raw data POINTERS array matches the total number of atoms in the structure, and that the names of the atoms match between the raw data and Atom instances. Now let’s see what happens if we modify our atom name and pop our last atom off the structure:

>>> parm.atoms.pop()
<Atom OXT [-1]>
>>> len(parm.atoms)
1653
>>> parm.ptr('natom')
1654
>>> parm.atoms[0].name = 'New'
>>> parm.parm_data['ATOM_NAME'][0]
'N'


Here we can clearly see that the raw data is not being updated with the changes we are making to our structure. Now let’s use AmberParm.remake_parm() to synchronize the raw data with the parameter/topology changes we are making:

>>> parm.remake_parm()
>>> len(parm.atoms)
1653
>>> parm.ptr('natom')
1653
>>> parm.atoms[0].name
'New'
>>> parm.parm_data['ATOM_NAME'][0]
'New'


They match again. Whew! This goes both ways, though. Let’s modify some of the raw data, and see how it does not propagate up to the parameter/topology data structures:

>>> parm.parm_data['ATOM_NAME'][1]
'H1'
>>> parm.parm_data['ATOM_NAME'][1] = 'Hey'
>>> parm.atoms[1].name
'H1'


Just like with modifying the parameter/topology objects, the changes to the raw data do not propagate. You need to use AmberParm.load_atom_info() (if you made modifications to arrays that were not atomic property arrays, you need to use AmberParm.load_structure(), but this is more expensive and arrays that are not atomic properties are much harder to directly modify correctly):

>>> parm.load_atom_info()
>>> parm.parm_data['ATOM_NAME'][1]
'Hey'
>>> parm.atoms[1].name
'Hey'


Hopefully this little demonstration showed you the pitfalls of modifying an AmberParm instance (or one of its subclasses), and shows you how to do it the right way. But be careful! These classes give you plenty of rope to hang yourself with.

### Generalizing with LoadParm()¶

If you use the AmberParm, ChamberParm, or AmoebaParm classes directly, you need to know which flavor of topology file you have, or you will get numerous errors.

In cases where you don’t know a priori what kind of topology file to expect, you can use LoadParm() (with exactly the same semantics as the class constructors), but the return type will always be the right kind (based on the flags present in the prmtop file).

For example, let’s try it on trx.prmtop (an Amber prmtop file) and dhfr_cmap_pbc.parm7 (a Chamber prmtop file), both available in the ParmEd test suite:

>>> trxparm = LoadParm('trx.prmtop')
>>> type(trxparm) # see that this is an AmberParm
<class 'parmed.amber._amberparm.AmberParm'>
>>> type(dhfrparm) # see that this is a ChamberParm
<class 'parmed.amber._chamberparm.ChamberParm'>


You may ask “why don’t I always use LoadParm()?” And the answer is, “you could.” But perhaps you only want to accept a certain flavor of prmtop file—the default constructors provide a more reliable error mechanism. LoadParm() is also marginally slower (but not much!), because it first instantiates an AmberFormat, checks the available flags, and then takes a view of that class in the format of the correct AmberParm variant. Note that no data is explicitly copied during this conversion, though.

## The coordinate and trajectory files¶

ParmEd also supplies classes for parsing all of the various formats of Amber coordinate files, including both restarts and trajectories (in both ASCII and NetCDF format). If numpy is available, all coordinates, velocities, and/or forces are added to numpy arrays. If not, array.array is the return object. These classes have very different APIs, so the onus is on you to only use these arrays as numpy arrays if you are sure numpy is available. (Since all NetCDF-capable libraries are built on numpy, this warning really only applies to ASCII files... see below).

Note that the parmed.amber package needs some help from third-party packages to read NetCDF-format files. For more information on NetCDF support, see the last section of this page.

The corresponding classes are:

 Rst7([filename, natom, title, time]) Amber input coordinate (or restart coordinate) file. AmberAsciiRestart(fname[, mode, natom, ...]) Parser for the Amber ASCII inpcrd/restart file format NetCDFRestart(fname[, mode]) Class to read or write NetCDF restart files NetCDFTraj(fname[, mode]) Class to read or write NetCDF restart files AmberMdcrd(fname, natom, hasbox[, mode, title]) A class to parse Amber ASCII trajectory files. netcdffiles.use

### Inpcrd and Restart files¶

The main class that deals with this is the Rst7 class. This class will automatically detect the file format of any inpcrd/restart file, and whether velocities and/or unit cell information is present. There are 2 ways you can instantiate a Rst7.

To read a restart file, provide a filename to the Rst7 constructor. If you plan on setting the data in order to write a restart file, you should provide the argument natom to the Rst7 constructor. Examples using the NetCDF restart file ncinpcrd.rst7 from the ParmEd unit tests are shown below (you are, of course, free to use an ASCII restart file instead):

>>> # Read an Amber NetCDF restart file
>>> ncrst = Rst7("ncinpcrd.rst7")
>>> ncrst.natom
2101
>>> ncrst.coordinates[:3]
array([ 6.82122493,  6.62762507, -8.51669   ])
>>> ncrst.vels[:3]
array([-2.87565556, -3.02095312,  3.73882771])
>>> ncrst.box
array([  30.2642725,   30.2642725,   30.2642725,  109.471219 ,
109.471219 ,  109.471219 ])


For OpenMM, coordinates and velocities need to have a specific shape as well as units (since the OpenMM core unit system is different than the one used by Amber). To facilitate this, the positions, velocities, and box_vectors attributes of the Rst7 class satisfy this requirement:

>>> ncrst.positions[0]
Quantity(value=array([ 6.82122493,  6.62762507, -8.51669   ]), unit=angstrom)
>>> ncrst.velocities[0]
Quantity(value=array([-2.87565556, -3.02095312,  3.73882771]), unit=angstrom/picosecond)
>>> print('\n'.join(repr(x) for x in ncrst.box_vectors)) # Prettier printing
Quantity(value=[30.264272500000001, 0.0, 0.0], unit=angstrom)
Quantity(value=[-10.088090019353215, 28.533430037688813, 0.0], unit=angstrom)
Quantity(value=[-10.088090019353215, -13.45078642114427, 25.164120774794483], unit=angstrom)


The Rst7 class uses the AmberAsciiRestart and NetCDFRestart classes internally with a much simpler interface. Unless you need the flexibility afforded by the raw classes, you are encouraged to use Rst7 instead.

Writing a restart file is easy as well. If you provide velocities, velocities will be written. If you supply unit cell dimensions, unit cell dimensions will be written. For example:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> new_rst7 = Rst7(natom=10)
>>> new_rst7.coordinates = np.random.random(30)
>>> new_rst7.box = [1, 1, 1, 90, 90, 90]
>>> new_rst7.write('new_rst7.ncrst', netcdf=True) # Write NetCDF format
>>> new_rst7.write('new_rst7.rst7')               # Write ASCII format


After this short script, you will have two coordinate files, one in NetCDF format (new_rst7.ncrst) and one in ASCII format (new_rst7.rst7) with the same (fake) coordinates. You can use ncdump to print the contents of the NetCDF file to compare, if you wish.

### Trajectory files¶

Amber generates two different formats of trajectory files: NetCDF trajectory files and a standardized ASCII-format (raw text) trajectory files. The parmed package contains classes that support both formats, described below:

 AmberMdcrd(fname, natom, hasbox[, mode, title]) A class to parse Amber ASCII trajectory files. NetCDFTraj(fname[, mode]) Class to read or write NetCDF restart files

First we will discuss the ASCII trajectory file (AmberMdcrd). We will first demonstrate how to parse an existing mdcrd file, then we will demonstrate how to write a new one.

You must specify—for both an existing mdcrd and one that you wish to create—the total number of atoms specified by the system and whether or not the trajectory will contain unit cell dimensions. The coordinates method, which takes as an optional argument a frame number, returns either all or just the requested coordinates. The analogous box method returns the unit cell lengths. The example below uses the file tz2.truncoct.crd from the ParmEd unit tests, which has 5827 atoms and box lengths:

>>> from parmed.amber import AmberMdcrd
>>> crd = AmberMdcrd('tz2.truncoct.crd', natom=5827, hasbox=True, mode='r')
>>> crd.coordinates(0)
array([ 0.078,  3.174, -8.844, ...,  2.178, -5.224,  8.991])
>>> len(crd.coordinates()) # number of total frames
10
>>> crd.coordinates(0).shape
(17481,)
>>> crd.coordinates(0).reshape((5827, 3)) # It is a numpy array
array([[ 0.078,  3.174, -8.844],
[ 0.999,  3.431, -8.521],
[-0.183,  2.306, -8.398],
...,
[ 1.761, -6.031,  8.689],
[ 2.047, -6.123,  7.781],
[ 2.178, -5.224,  8.991]])
>>> crd.box(0)
array([ 42.439,  42.439,  42.439])
>>> len(crd.box()) # Should also be the number of frames
10


When you are writing an AmberMdcrd file, you need to use the methods add_coordinates and add_box instead of coordinates and box, as shown in the example below:

import numpy as np
from parmed.amber import AmberMdcrd
crd = AmberMdcrd('new.mdcrd', natom=30, hasbox=True, mode='w')
# Close the file
crd.close()


You should be able to open the file new.mdcrd and see 90 numbers spread over 9 lines (10 numbers per line), then a line with the three box dimensions, followed by 9 more lines with 90 total numbers and another line with box dimensions.

Now I will demonstrate the use of the NetCDFTraj class, which is designed to be very similar to the AmberMdcrd class. Creating an instance is different, but querying and adding coordinates (and unit cell dimensions, velocities, and forces) is done in the same way.

To parse an existing NetCDF trajectory, use the open_old constructor. To write a new one, use open_new. An example parsing an existing NetCDF trajectory (using the tz2.truncoct.nc file in the ParmEd unit tests) is shown below:

>>> from parmed.amber import NetCDFTraj
>>> traj = NetCDFTraj.open_old('tz2.truncoct.nc')
>>> traj.atom  # number of atoms in the file
5827
>>> traj.frame # number of frames currently in the file
10
>>> traj.coordinates(0)
array([ 0.07762779,  3.1744082 , -8.84385777, ...,  2.17817903,
-5.22395372,  8.99102497], dtype=float32)
>>> traj.coordinates(9)
array([ 0.33575553,  4.19061375, -9.66586971, ...,  2.48203635,
-3.30589318,  8.45326519], dtype=float32)
>>> traj.box(0)
array([  42.43884853,   42.43884853,   42.43884853,  109.471219  ,
109.471219  ,  109.471219  ])
>>> traj.box(9)
array([  42.42843203,   42.42843203,   42.42843203,  109.471219  ,
109.471219  ,  109.471219  ])


One thing you’ll notice is that the NetCDFTraj class has the atom and frame attributes that indicate how many atoms are in the trajectory and how many frames are present. Furthermore, unlike the AmberMdcrd format—which stores only the unit cell lengths—the NetCDFTraj stores both unit cell lengths and angles.

Furthermore, velocities and forces can be saved in NetCDF trajectory files, allowing you to extract them with the analogous velocities and forces methods. Likewise, you can set them with add_velocities and add_forces.

An example of writing a NetCDF trajectory (with velocities and forces) is shown below:

from parmed.amber import NetCDFTraj
import numpy as np
# Open the NetCDF trajectory file for writing
crd = NetCDFTraj.open_new('new_crd.nc', natom=30, box=True,
crds=True, vels=True, frcs=True)
# Add random coordinates, velocities, and forces for first frame
crd.add_box([1, 1, 1, 90, 90, 90])
crd.add_box([1.1, 1.1, 1.1, 90, 90, 90])
# Close the file
crd.close()


As an exercise, try using NetCDFTraj.open_old() to check the contents of new_crd.nc and verify that it contains the information you expect.

## Reading and writing NetCDF files¶

NetCDF—standing for Network Common Data Format—is a binary file format that is flexible, portable (i.e., between big endian and little endian), and extensible (i.e., you can extend a file convention to include more data without breaking existing parsers).

Python cannot read NetCDF files without the support of an external package. In particular, the following packages provide Python bindings to the NetCDF API:

All three of these files provide similar, although not identical interfaces. The ParmEd API supports all three NetCDF backends. You can swap out backends at any time using the use function. If you do not choose one, one will be picked automatically based on the available packages. If several of those packages are available, the first one in the above list that is available will be picked.

For most users, simply ensuring that at least one of the above packages is available and working and using the default will suffice. For the other small percentage that may want more fine-grained control, the use function will let you specify a particular implementation to use. You can change the back-end at any time, but note that the behavior of a NetCDF object created with one implementation is undefined if you switch to a different one. So you are cautioned against switching NetCDF implementations when open NetCDF file handles are still open.

An example of switching between NetCDF implementations is shown below:

from parmed.amber import netcdffiles
# Use the default NetCDF package (if one is already selected,
# this does nothing)
netcdffiles.use() # You can also pass "None"
# Use scipy for NetCDF files
netcdffiles.use('scipy')
# Use ScientificPython for NetCDF files
netcdffiles.use('Scientific') # Can also be ScientificPython
# Use netCDF4
netcdffiles.use('netCDF4')


The Amber programs use a selection syntax very similar to Chimera’s selection syntax, referred to as an Amber mask. The character : is used for residue selections and @ is used for atom selections. Both numbers and names are supported in the atom and residue selections (where the serial numbers range from 1 to N, where N is either the total number of atoms or residues, depending on what is being selected).

The atom/residue name or number list can be specified as a comma-delimited list of entries (inclusive number ranges are also supported). You can also use logical operators & (and), | (or), and ! (not) and group expressions with parenthesis to denote order-of-operations.

### Residue selections¶

Examples of residue selections, accompanied by comments annotating what is being selected, is shown below:

:1,3,6-10    Select residues 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10
:ALA,LYS,10  Select all residues with names ALA or LYS, and residue 10
:1-3,6-10    Select residues 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10


### Atom selections¶

Examples of residue selections, accompanied by comments annotating what is being selected, is shown below:

@1-100,150-160   Select the first 100 atoms as well as the 11 atoms 150-160
@CA,C,10-15      Select all atoms whose names are CA or C, and 6 atoms 10-15


### Atom element selections¶

You can select all residues that are a specific element if you want to. Examples are shown below, accompanied by comments annotating what is being selected:

@/C          Select all carbon atoms
@/H          Select all hydrogen atoms
@/C,N,O,H,S  Select all carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur atoms
@/Fe         Select all iron atoms


Be careful, though! These element names are case-sensitive, and bad element names will cause the mask parser to raise an exception.

### Atom type selections¶

In some cases, it is more succinct to select by atom type name, rather than atom name. Be careful though! Atom type names can change from force field to force field, and are considered an implementation detail. While atom names should never change (and are based on the PDB standard, typically), atom type names can be set and/or changed to whatever the force field developer wants.

You have been warned. If you wish to push on, though, you can use the @% characters to select from type names rather than atom names. Note, no indices (or index ranges) can be used, as atom types have no defined order. Examples are shown below:

@%CT,CX         Select all atoms whose types are CT or CX


### Logical operators¶

You often want to select certain atoms from certain residues. You can use the & binary operator to do this, as shown in examples below:

(:1-100)&(@CA)      Selects atoms named CA in the first 100 residues
(:1-100)&(@CA,CB)   Selects atoms named CA or CB in the first 100 residues
(:ASP,GLU)&(@CA)    Selects atoms named CA in all ASP or GLU residues


This is so common, you can use a simple shortcut, demonstrated below, giving equivalent expressions to the examples above:

:1-100@CA
:1-100@CA,CB
:ASP,GLU@CA


You can also expand your selection using the | (or) operator. For example:

:1-100|@CA      Selects all atoms in the first 100 residues AND all atoms named CA


Don’t get confused between what the & (and) and | (or) operators do. The above example selects all atoms if it satisfies the criteria of being in the first 100 residues or if it satisfies the criteria of having the name CA, meaning it selects all atoms in the first 100 residues and all atoms named CA.

You can also select all atoms except a particular selection:

!(:LIG)         Selects all atoms that are NOT in a residue named LIG


### Wild-cards¶

Let’s suppose you want to select all hydrogen atoms. These atoms usually have many names, but they almost always start with “H”, so we would like a way to select all atoms that start with the letter “H”. We can do this with wild-cards, which is the = character in Amber masks, and works for both atoms and residues. For example:

:AS=@H=   Select all atoms whose residue starts with AS AND atom name starts with H


### Distance-based selections¶

Sometimes you also want to be able to select all atoms within a certain distance (or all atoms within a residue that is a certain distance) from a specific set of atoms. For this, the < and > operators are used to denote distances that are less than or greater than a particular value, respectively.

This is probably the most complex part of the Amber mask syntax, but it is also quite powerful. In addition to the < and > operators, you must use either @ or : to indicate whether you want to select individual atoms or whole residues satisfying the distance. When selecting residues, the whole residue is selected if any atom satisfies the distance criteria. The general syntax is SELECTION<:DISTANCE, where SELECTION is an Amber mask (: can also be @ to select only atoms), and DISTANCE is a floating point distance that defines the criteria. Examples are shown below with annotations:

:8<@5.0     All atoms that are LESS THAN 5 Angstroms away from any atom in residue 8
:1>:10.0    All atoms in any residue in which one atom is MORE THAN 10 angstroms away from residue 1